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  • 论刑法基本原则确立——从法理学、刑法学及比较研究的角度

    [ 黄建华 ]——(2004-4-25) / 已阅33206次

    论刑法基本原则确立
    On Establishing Basic Principle of Criminal Law
    ——从法理学、刑法学及比较研究的角度
    --In the Perspective of Jurisprudence\Criminal Science and Comparison

    作者/黄建华

    【摘要】
    我国现行刑法总则部分(第3、4、5条),法律面前人人平等、罪刑法定、罪刑相适应原则已经明文规定为刑法的基本指导原则,成为刑事立法、司法活动必须遵行的基本原则。缘此,这三原则作为刑法基本原则的地位似乎已不可动摇。

    然而,笔者依然有所质疑。

    是否可以因为刑法基本原则已落户于刑法典中,或因为之前之后曾经大规模地讨论过,现在就可袖手不问了,或者说这个问题是否真的业已解决?诚恐不然。

    首先,刑法对刑法基本原则的规定只是“已然”,未必是“必然”或“应然”,这自然是由法的滞后性、不周延性等先天不足造成的。其次,法学理论研究不是仅仅作为某部法律规范的“法窑”而存在的,而应为整个法学进步的引擎,既务实又要有前瞻性。再次,整个社会都在不断发展,立法和司法环境也在改变。

    故此,笔者认为旧题重拾亦是有以。

    谈到刑法基本原则,我们无法回避另一相关概念,即法的原则。

    本文着意从法理的角度分析了何为法的原则、法的原则的分类,以求理清法的原则与基本法律原则的关系。以此为阶,本文的一个重要内容即是以比较的眼光对刑法基本原则进行研讨,即从刑法基本原则与宪法基本原则以及刑法基本原则与民法基本原则的对比分析中,找出刑法基本原则的各方面特性,以此进一步检验已有的及新近的提法,并力求对以后刑法基本原则可能出现的提法准备辨认手段。
    【关键词】
    法的原则 刑法基本原则 宪法基本内原则 民法基本原则 刑法平等适用原则
    Abstract:

    In the General Rules (item3, 4,5) of the current criminal law of our country, equal status from criminal law principle, crime and penalty by law principle and crime equaling penalty principle have been laid down in clause clearly as fundamental guiding principles, and the three so turn basic principles which must be obeyed in the course of law making and performing, because of this, it seems that the position of the three as the basic principle in the criminal law could not be removed.

    However, the author believes it to be inconvincible.

    Could we be relaxed and lie comfortably just because the basic principle of criminal law has resided in the criminal law or it has been explored by lots of people before or after it was laid down in clause? Or the problem has really been solved? I’m really afraid not.

    Firstly, that the basic principle has been fixed in the criminal law is just “so ” but not really “must be so ” or “should be so ”, which is naturally caused by the characteristics of criminal law such as “behind-lagging” and “not-all-in” these born flaws. Secondly, the theory study of legal science doesn’t just exist as a “kiln” of any branch law, it should be the motor of forward moving of the whole legal science, and need be not only practical but foreseen. Thirdly, the whole society is developing, and the legal environment is changing as well.

    As a result of that, the author believes it is reasonable to remention the old object.

    Mentioning the basic principle of law, we could not escape another related concept, which is legal principle.

    In this article, it is attentively analyzed in the perspective of legal jurisprudence what is legal principle and the classifying of legal principle, in attempt to make clear the relationship of legal principle and basic principle of law. On the basis of that, one of the important contents of this article is to study the basic principle of criminal law in eye of comparison, meaning detecting all characteristics of basic criminal law principle by comparison of basic principle of criminal law to that of constitution and that of civil law, and further checking the old and newly-coming concepts of basic principle of criminal law, trying to prepare checking methods for the possibly coming concepts of basic principle of criminal law in future.

    Key words:
    Legal principle Basic principle of criminal law Basic principle of constitution Basic principle of civil law Equal status from criminal law principle

    刑法基本原则是刑法学的一个根本问题,但理论界对这一问题的认识至今依然“远近高低各不同”;研究者皆各秉持己见,争论纷纭不休,到现在依然持续,未能达成普遍共识。

    有关刑法基本原则的认识分歧,要而言之,多集中在何为刑法基本原则,刑法基本原则认定的依据,以及刑法基本原则的具体内容等方面,后二者尤其为论争的焦点。

    其实, 刑法基本原则之所以到今天尚不十分明确,与人们研究这一问题的角度有重要关系。笔者以为,刑法基本原则虽然属于刑法学问题,研究着眼点却不宜囿于刑法学这一端口。欲将其彻底澄清,就须全方位地进行多维捕逐。

    故此,笔者不揣冒大方之家所不韪而试从各个角度诸如法理学、刑法学、比较研究等对该问题详作推敲。

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    论文分类

    A 法学理论

    C 国家法、宪法

    E 行政法

    F 刑法

    H 民法

    I 商法

    J 经济法

    N 诉讼法

    S 司法制度

    T 国际法


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