• 法律图书馆

  • 新法规速递

  • 关于我国当代检察权法理定位及权能配置模式的思考

    [ 王晓苏 ]——(2005-10-27) / 已阅56633次

    关于我国当代检察权
    法理定位及权能配置模式的思考

    王晓苏:法律硕士 一级检察官
    辽宁省本溪市人民检察院 教育处处长

    内容提要
    我国检察权定位问题在学理界和应用法学界争执不休,对这一领域的研究,相对其他刑事法学的研究而言比较滞后,现有的框架已经成为当今司法改革的桎梏。
    本文试图运用法理学和诉讼法学等理论,从当代中国检察权的实然形态入手,探讨、论证当代中国检察权及权能配置、运行的应然形态。一方面,分析当代中国检察权在宪法中架构的合理性,另一方面,也阐述检察权性质进一步明确的必要性。检察权既不是行政权、也不是司法权,既不是行政权和司法权的混合体,也不是现在宪法定位的法律监督权,检察权就是检察权。检察权是与审判权相对应的独立权能。
    围绕这一观点,运用比较的方法,从决定和制约检察权定位的诉讼理论出发,论证检察权作为独立的国家权力的必然性。在此基础上,探讨检察权科学的定位和优化检察权配置、运行模式。

    关键词:检察权 定位 配置 运行
    英文摘要:Abstract
    Camparing with other litigation theory,the research of the contemporary
    procuratorial theories is rather weak.The concept on the science of law of mordern Chinese Procuratorial Power is in dispute.There are some radical problems in the process of practicing procuratorial power and in the mode of it.That effects the process of reforming the administration of justice.The form of the law atribution of procuratorial power and the mode in operation should be improved.
    The author thinks that the procuratorial power should be studied and proofed on the foundation of the exact,stable essential sciecne of law,on that of the construstion and development on Chinese law absorbing the newest achievement about mordern science of criminal procedure,constitution and the national science.
    The purpose of researching the theory is to guide the practice,meanwhile,the analysis of actual procuratorial power is in order to attain the ideal conclusion on it .
    There are two different meanings in the course of the researching the concept and contents of procuratorial power. On one hand:What is its nature and mission ?How to exert it with the current power struture in our country? On the other hand,the procuratorial power will lead to impact on criminal civil and administrative proceedings in the cours of practice in our country as a culture of law and a part of civilization of human beings especially as an important part of the procuratorial system.It should be defined scientfically and become a beneficial chain of every science on laws.
    In the practice,the current form of law structure is in the appearnce of practical form,and the form in reserching is an ideal form-that is called reasonable one,and they integrates with each other.The practical form is the origin of the reasonable one,and the reasonable form must necessarily conduct,amend the practical one,and it will serve for establishing a better practical form.
    The anthor probes into the law of development and effectiveness on the procuratorial power from the course of production and the development of the mordern procuratorial power anylizes the evil of the practical form of procuratrial power itself and its distribution and its mode,points out the author's view.Chinese current procuratorial power is neither executive power nor judicial power nor the mixtuer of the above two powers nor the legal supervision power denified in the Constitution.It is the procuratorial power that fits for the contemporary national structure.
    This work is divided into preface,main body, conclusion including five chapters.
    Preface: A brief introduction on the practical value and the significance on the theory of the researches of Procuraterial Power system.
    The first part fully introduces the concept,the origin of procuratorial power and general meaning of research on procuratorial power,illustrates some conclusions concerning on the procuratorial power.The Chinese contemporay procuratorial power should be exerted only by national procuratorial administration according to the Constitution and law.It can prosecute all the crime publicly ,then check the crime of a particular corpus and support the national interest to basic purpose.
    The procuratorial one is an indcpendent kind of power,opposite to the judicial organ with the qualities of order,and judicature.The charicteristics of the Procuratorial Power are legal,indepence and specialism,order distingushed from executive pwer,judicial power and legal supervision power.The Procuratorial Power is often realized as standard,legal order.
    The second part primarily elaborat the concept of the Procuratorial Power from the legal theory,the national law and the criminal law. “Public Justice Fairy”is the highest state of the corrent judicial state,and democracy is welcome.And this is the purpose of reforming the Procuratorial Power .
    The concept, mode and attribution of the Procuratorial Power are effectivelly interfered by the principles of value.priciple of efficiency and that of litigation of request,procedure of social public welfare.Considering the integration scientifically,we can take the usage of the Procuratorial Power well,at last it can necessarily guide the reform suceessfully.
    The third and fourth part judges the benifits and disadvantages of the current Procuratorial Power analyzing the unreasonable causes because of the interfere of legal.adimnistration.
    The fifth part (Conclusion)illustrates the analyze of the contemprary form of the Procuratorial Power.The author objectirely evaluate the total tendeney of the development, reform and completion.The author brings up the points and suggestions.That is:
    Make clear the difference between the legal supervision power and the Procuratorial power.
    Change the mode of the appointment of the prosecutors,the way of management and pratice administration centralization dual system.
    Remove the irrelavant power practiced by the contemprary prosecution.
    Enhance the power of interfering the litigant and national low of civil case and balance the judicial organ and gurantee.
    Abolish the administraltive organization, practice the chief prosecutor to lead the whole prosecutors realize the integration.

    英文关键词:Thinking on the concept and content of Chinese current procuratorial power

    目录:
    第一章 检察权概述
    第二章 检察权定位的法理思考
    第三章 当代中国检察权的职能配置及评断
    第四章 当代中国检察权运行模式及评断
    第五章 检察权的应然定位及权能培植、运行模式的理性思考

    第一章 检察权概述
    检察权是国家权力在社会生活中的体现,是国家权力的具体形式之一。检察权伴随着一个国家的民主法制化进程的推进,干预、制衡国家其他权力,特别是制约司法权的职能也日趋显著。
    由于国家制度的不同和司法制度的差异,一个国家所赋予检察权的内容不同,法理定位也不同。英、美国家把检察权划归到行政权中,检察机关隶属行政院或司法部。大陆法系的国家则把检察权作为司法权的一种,划归到司法序列,其职权的相对性比较突出。如,法国检察官局限在纯粹的司法领域,职权仅仅限于控诉和刑罚的执行。美国把检察职能配置于联邦法律的执行机构中,即司法部长、副部长分别是总检察长和副总检察长,管辖检察系统、警察系统、刑罚机构、联邦调查机构。其职权是行政权能。
    司法、检察制度的不同,检察权的含义也不同,但是,检察官作为一种职业,最基本的职能有三项,即监督权、侦查权、公诉权。这三项基本权能在联合国《关于检察官作用的准则》中也有相应表述,如:第十一条规定检察官有公诉权;第十四条规定有不起诉权;第十五条规定检察官对贪污腐化案件有侦查权;第十六条规定检察官有监督权;第十七条规定检察官有自由裁量权。
    一、检察权的历史渊源
    检察职能与制度的产生犹如其他国家职能一样,是国家统治的需要,但是,检察制度的产生相对其他制度发展产生较晚,其产生孕育发展过程是国家法治、民主与文明建设、完善的结果。从人类社会发展演进过程看,国家要维护正常社会秩序,必须对各类犯罪进行惩戒,运用国家权力和法律保护国家利益和公共利益。
    中国古代的诉讼也分为官纠和民举两类,最早见于《尚书》记载:“两造具备,师听五辞。五辞简孚,正于五刑”,团体诉讼秦朝时期就有“五从相告”,官吏纠举在云梦书简中有大量的记载。到三国两晋南北朝以后,对重大犯罪都由官吏纠举。【2】可见侵犯公共利益的犯罪和多数人利益的犯罪开始由官吏代表国家进行诉讼干预。到三国两晋南北朝时期确立严惩重罪十条以后,严重犯罪也开始由国家干预诉讼。古罗马司法审判中,将诉讼按公犯和私犯划分,公犯案件交由官吏起诉。无论中外,诉讼的类型发展演进一步一个脚印地向着民主法制迈进。

    总共5页  1 [2] [3] [4] [5]

      下一页

    ==========================================

    免责声明:
    声明:本论文由《法律图书馆》网站收藏,
    仅供学术研究参考使用,
    版权为原作者所有,未经作者同意,不得转载。

    ==========================================

    论文分类

    A 法学理论

    C 国家法、宪法

    E 行政法

    F 刑法

    H 民法

    I 商法

    J 经济法

    N 诉讼法

    S 司法制度

    T 国际法


    Copyright © 1999-2019 杭州法图网络科技有限公司

    浙ICP备10202533号-1

    浙公网安备 33010502000828号