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    [ 刘成伟 ]——(2003-7-7) / 已阅70679次

    Chapter Ⅱ
    Causes of Action before the DSB:
    Art. XXIII of the GATT 1994


    OUTLINE


    Section One Right to Pursue a Proceeding under the WTO
    I The Concept of Nullification or Impairment
    II The Standing Issue before the DSB
    III Lack of Possible Compensation
    IV Summary and Conclusions
    Section Two Causes of Action before the DSB in General
    I The Presumption in Violation Complaints
    (i)Introduction
    (ii)Practice under the GATT Jurisprudence
    (iii)Rulings under the WTO Jurisprudence
    (iv)A Summary
    II An Overview of Non-Violation Complaints
    (i)Related Texts
    (ii)Relationship between Arts. XXIII:1(a) and XXIII:1(b)
    (iii)Underlying Purpose of Art. XXIII:1(b)
    (iv)Non-violation Claims in the Context of Principles of Customary International Law
    (v)Appropriate Attitudes as to Non-Violation Remedy
    III Presupposed Situation Complaints
    Section Three Establishment of Non-violation Complaints
    I Introduction
    II Application of a Measure: Scope of Measures Covered by Art. XXIII:1(b)
    (i)Measures short of Legally Binding Obligations
    (ii)Measures Falling under Other Provisions of the GATT 1994
    (iii)Measures Concerning the Protection of Human Health
    (iv)Measures Continuingly Applied
    III Existence of a Benefit: Protection of Legitimate Expectations
    (i)Protection of Legitimate Expectations(PLE)
    (ii)Non-foreseeability of Measures at Issue
    (iii)Benefits in the Negotiations
    (iv)Benefits under Successive Rounds
    IV Nullification or Impairment of Benefit: Causality
    V Summary and Conclusions


    Section One
    Right to Pursue a Proceeding under the WTO

    I The Concept of Nullification or Impairment

    Nullification or impairment is a most important concept developed in previous GATT dispute settlement system. It is incorporated into the GATT 1994 by the so-called incorporation clause (paragraph 1 of the GATT 1994) and goes on to operate as an important feature of the DSU under the WTO. Dispute settlement mechanism under the WTO continues to revolve around the concept of nullification or impairment. Art. 3.1 of the DSU requires Members to “affirm their adherence to the principles for the management of disputes heretofore applied under Articles XXII and XXIII of GATT 1947”.
    According to Art. XXIII:1 of the GATT, a Member may have recourse to dispute settlement under the WTO when it considers that:

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