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  • 论宽严相济政策下我国未成年人犯罪刑罚制度之重构

    [ 马乾龙 ]——(2010-4-21) / 已阅46656次

    论我国未成年人犯罪刑罚制度之重构

    马乾龙


    中文摘要
      当前未成年人犯罪形势的不断恶化趋势引起了世界各国的广泛关注与重视,相关人士纷纷从心理学、社会学、法律学等多门学科剖析研究未成年人犯罪的原因,以力图寻求遏制未成年人犯罪的有效对策,维护社会秩序的稳定和和谐。
      纵观我国刑事法律可以得知我国的未成年人犯罪是指已满14周岁不满18周岁的具有刑事责任能力的未成年人实施的违法刑事法律具有严重社会危害性的依法应当受到刑事处罚的行为。由于我国现行的未成年人犯罪刑罚制度是在成年犯罪人刑罚体系基础上稍作修改而构建的,在适用于未成年犯罪人时存在某些弊端,如在刑种的设置上只是排除了死刑对未成年犯的适用,但对于无期徒刑、管制等其他和主刑和附加刑未作任何调整,在适用主体方面绝对排除了14周岁以下未成年人的刑事责任;在刑罚裁量方面,对于从宽处罚幅度以及情形尚无明确规定,同时未排除累犯对未成年犯罪人的适用;在刑罚的执行方面,无论是减刑还是假释都规定了与成年犯适用的相同条件,且非刑罚处罚措施单一死板。总体而言,其无论从刑罚的设置,还是裁量以及执行方面,都过分强调刑罚的强制性与严厉性,片面追求刑罚打击犯罪的目的,忽视了对未成年犯罪人的人权保护。
      本文在研究未成年犯罪概念和未成年人犯罪刑罚制度的基础上,结合未成年人身心的特殊性,提出未成年人犯罪刑罚制度价值取向应杜绝一味追求惩罚的刑罚价值,而应以教育、改造为主。在紧密联系刑法的基本原则和分析刑罚的最终目的前提下,深入剖析当前世界刑事立法趋势,立足保障人权、维护未成年犯的合法权益,极力倡导刑罚轻缓化,主张对现行未成年犯罪人刑罚制度从刑种的适用、刑罚适用主体的范围、刑罚裁量以及刑罚的执行等方面着手予以调整,建立与未成年犯罪人相适应的刑罚体系,有限制地适用无期徒刑,完善管制刑的相关规定,禁止拘役刑的适用,扩大罚金刑的适用范围。同时扩大刑罚的广度,有限度规定年满12—14周岁的未成年人刑事责任。实行前科消灭制度。反思刑罚执行方面的相关规定,灵活放宽未成年犯在适用假释和减刑时的条件,鼓励未成年犯改过自新,早日走上社会。针对现行非刑罚处置措施单一,可操作性不强等特点,设置相配套的多种非刑罚处置措施,借助多种方式实现“惩罚、教育、改造”未成年的目的,以有效打击与遏制犯罪,维护未成年犯罪人的身心健康,保障人权,促进社会和谐局面的稳定形成。

    关键词:未成年人犯罪;未成年人犯罪刑罚制度;刑罚功能;前科消灭;刑罚宽缓化


    Abstract
    As the minor crime situation worsing, many countries pay more attention on it,the related public figure from the psychology, the sociology, the jurisprudence and so on many discipline analyses the reason of the minor crime in abundance, try to seek the effective remedy of it,in order to maintain the society stability and harmonious.
    Looking over the criminal activity law in our country,the minor crime is refered to that people who reaches 14 years old but less than 18 year-old has the criminal capacity minor do behavior that is criminal and serious damage the society. Because of the present minor crime penalty system is maked by the grown-up perpetrator penalty system foundation with slightly revise, it has certain malpractices is not suitable in the underage perpetrator.for example,only removed the death penalty in the establishment which the punishment planted to juvenile prisoner's being suitable, regarding the life imprisonment, the control and other principal penalty have not maked any adjustment;it has removed the people who is only 14 year old of below minor's legal responsibilities absolutely out of the suitable body;on the aspect of penalty, it still does not regard the lenient punishment scope as well as the situation stipulated explicitly, simultaneously it has not removed the accumulative offense to underage perpetrator's being suitable;carrying out the penalty with regardless of sentence and parole,it has stipulated the same condition as the grown-up commit', and the non-penalty punishing solely stodgy.Overall,regardless of the penalty's establishment, the deliberation and the carring out,it overemphasizes compulsory and severe of the penalty, pursues to crack down on the crime one-sidedly the goal,and neglects the underage perpetrator's human rights protection.
    In order to study the concept of the underage crime and the penalty system's foundation of the minor crime, this article proposes the value of the penalty systems orientation educating the transformation primarily by unifing the minor body and mind the particularity,and belive the purpose premise should move downwards. Intense the base contacting corporal punishment's and ultimateness analysing a penalty, analyse the current criminal world legislation trend in depth , base self on guarantee human rights , the lawful rights and interests defending a juvenile prisoner , do one's utmost to propose that the penalty is gently slow melt, advocate committing a crime to immaturity currently in effect person penalty system applies to the main body range from kinds of punishment applying to , penalty , the penalty cuts aspect such as amounts and Carrying out the punishment set about giving adjustment,building the penalty system which is suitable for adapts ,restricting the life imprisonment of field suitable f , perfecting the regulation controlling punishment , applying to take punishment into custody, applicability expanding fine punishment's.Simultaneously ,expanding penalty's breadth, limiting the stipulated age to 12-14 year-old minor legal responsibility.,Implementing the criminal record to eliminate the system.Rethinking the punishment aspect relevance to regulation profoundly, relaxing the juvenile prisoner dure the period of applying to a conditional release and reducing the penalty sentence by , encouraging juvenile prisoner turn over a new leaf ,and walking up society soon.Dealing with the penalty specifical ly for mistake currently effect unitary, laking of operatability for a characteristic by force , interposing variety assorting , supporting from various way realizing "punishment with the purpose of reform and education to strike and keep within limits to commit a crime, defend an immaturity committing a for the crime people's physically and mentally healthy , guarant the human rights , and boost harmonious aspect of society stability.



    Key words:the minor crime; the system of minor crime; penalty function; the elimination of criminal record; penalty leisure.






    目录
    导论 7
    第一章 未成年人犯罪刑罚制度概述 8
    一、未成年人刑罚制度的内涵 9
    (一)未成年犯罪的概念 9
    (二)未成年人犯罪刑罚制度的定义 10
    (三)未成年人犯罪刑罚制度的渊源与发展 11
    二、未成年人犯罪刑罚制度的功能 12
    (一)刑罚功能与目的 12
    (二)未成年人犯罪刑罚制度功能的转变 13
    第二章 我国未成年人犯罪刑罚制度之反思 14
    一、我国未成年人犯罪刑罚制度制刑现状之剖析 15
    (一)明确规定对未成年犯罪人不予适用死刑 15
    (二)刑罚制度适用对象为已满14周岁的未成年人 15
    二、我国未成年人犯罪刑罚制度量刑现状之分析 16
    (一)从宽处罚原则可操作性不强 16
    (二)量刑标准较具体明确 16
    (三)累犯效力适用于未成年犯罪人 17
    三、我国未成年人犯罪刑罚制度行刑现状之评析 18
    (一)缓刑制度适用条件苛刻 18
    (二)免刑制度存在立法空白 19
    (三)减刑与假释未予放宽适用 19
    (四)非刑罚处置措施单一 19

    总共7页  1 [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]

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