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    1. 【颁布时间】1989-12-26
    2. 【标题】中华人民共和国环境保护法(附英文)
    3. 【发文号】主席令7届第22号
    4. 【失效时间】
    5. 【颁布单位】全国人民代表大会
    6. 【法规来源】全国人民代表大会常务委员会公报1989年
      【注】本法规已经被 id450673 法规修改
    7. 【法规全文】

     

    中华人民共和国环境保护法(附英文)

    中华人民共和国环境保护法(附英文)

    全国人民代表大会


    中华人民共和国环境保护法(附英文)


    中华人民共和国主席令(七届第22号)

      《中华人民共和国环境保护法》已由中华人民共和国第七届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十一次会议于1989年12月26日通过,现予公布,自公布之日起施行。

                            中华人民共和国主席 杨尚昆

                               1989年12月26日



    中华人民共和国环境保护法(附英文)

    (1989年12月26日第七届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十一次会议通过 1989年12月26日中华人民共和国主席令第二十二号公布 自公布之日起施行。

    《中华人民共和国环境保护法》已由中华人民共和国第届七全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十一次会议于 1989年12月26日通过,自公布之日施行。
    中华人民共和国主席 杨尚昆
    1989年12月26日

    目 录
    第一章 总 则
    第二章 环境监督管理
    第三章 保护和改善环境
    第四章 防治环境污染和其他公害
    第五章 法律责任
    第六章 附 则

    第一章 总 则
    第一条 为保护和改善生活环境与生态环境,防治污染和其他公害,保障人体健康,促进社会主义现代化建设的发展,制定本法。
    第二条 本法所称环境,是指影响人类生存和发展的各种天然的和经过人工改造的自然因素的总体,包括大气、水、海洋、土地、矿藏、森林、草原、野生生物、自然遗迹、人文遗迹、自然保护区、风景名胜区、城市和乡村等。
    第三条 本法适用于中华人民共和国领域和中华人民共和国管辖的其他海域。
    第四条 国家制定的环境保护规划必须纳入国民经济和社会发展计划,国家采取有利于环境保护的经济、技术政策和措施,使环境保护工作同经济建设和社会发展相协调。
    第五条 国家鼓励环境保护科学教育事业的发展,加强环境保护科学技术的研究和开发,提高环境保护科学技术水平,普及环境保护的科学知识。
    第六条 一切单位和个人都有保护环境的义务,并有权对污染和破坏环境的单位和个人进行检举和控告。
    第七条 国务院环境保护行政主管部门,对全国环境保护工作实施统一监督管理。
    县级以上地方人民政府环境保护行政主管部门,对本辖区的环境保护工作实施统一监督管理。
    国家海洋行政主管部门、港务监督、渔政渔港监督、军队环境保护部门和各级公安、交通、铁道、民航管理部门,依照有关法律的规定对环境污染防治实施监督管理。
    县级以上人民政府的土地、矿产、林业、农业、水利行政主管部门,依照有关法律的规定对资源的保护实施监督管理。
    第八条 对保护环境有显著成绩的单位和个人,由人民政府给予奖励。

    第二章 环境监督管理
    第九条 国务院环境保护行政主管部门制定国家环境质量标准。
    省、自治区、直辖市人民政府对国家环境质量标准中未作规定的项目,可以制定地方环境质量标准,并报国务院环境保护行政主管部门备案。
    第十条 国务院环境保护行政主管部门根据国家环境质量标准和国家经济、技术条件,制定国家污染物排放标准。
    省、自治区、直辖市人民政府对国家污染物排放标准中未作规定的项目,可以制定地方污染物排放标准;对国家污染物排放标准中已作规定的项目,可以制定严于国家污染物排放标准的地方污染物排放标准。地方污染物排放标准须报国务院环境保护行政主管部门备案。
    凡是向已有地方污染物排放标准的区域排放污染物的,应当执行地方污染物排放标准。
    第十一条 国务院环境保护行政主管部门建立监测制度,制定监测规范,会同有关部门组织监测网络,加强对环境监测和管理。国务院和省、自治区、直辖市人民政府的环境保护行政主管部门,应当定期发布环境状况公报。
    第十二条 县级以上人民政府环境保护行政主管部门,应当会同有关部门对管辖范围内的环境状况进行调查和评价,拟订环境保护规划,经计划部门综合平衡后,报同级人民政府批准实施。
    第十三条 建设污染环境的项目,必须遵守国家有关建设项目环境保护管理的规定。
    建设项目的环境影响报告书,必须对建设项目产生的污染和对环境的影响作出评价,规定防治措施,经项目主管部门预审并依照规定的程序报环境保护行政主管部门批准。环境影响报告书经批准后,计划部门方可批准建设项目设计任务书。
    第十四条 县级以上人民政府环境保护行政主管部门或者其他依照法律规定行使环境监督管理权的部门,有权对管辖范围内的排污单位进行现场检查。被检查的单位应当如实反映情况,提供必要的资料。检查机关应当为被检查的单位保守技术秘密和业务秘密。
    第十五条 跨行政区的环境污染和环境破坏的防治工作,由有关地方人民政府协商解决,或者由上级人民政府协调解决,做出决定。

    第三章 保护和改善环境
    第十六条 地方各级人民政府,应当对本辖区的环境质量负责,采取措施改善环境质量。
    第十七条 各级人民政府对具有代表性的各种类型的自然生态系统区域,珍稀、濒危的野生动植物自然分布区域,重要的水源涵养区域,具有重大科学文化价值的地质构造、著名溶洞和化石分布区、冰川、火山、温泉等自然遗迹,以及人文遗迹、古树名木,应当采取措施加以保护,严禁破坏。
    第十八条 在国务院、国务院有关主管部门和省、自治区、直辖市人民政府划定的风景名胜区、自然保护区和其他需要特别保护的区域内,不得建设污染环境的工业生产设施;建设其他设施,其污染物排放不得超过规定的排放标准。已经建成的设施,其污染物排放超过规定的排放标准的,限期治理。
    第十九条 开发利用自然资源,必须采取措施保护生态环境。
    第二十条 各级人民政府应当加强对农业环境的保护,防治土壤污染、土地沙化、盐渍化、贫瘠化、沼泽化、地面沉降和防治植被破坏、水土流失、水源枯竭、种源灭绝以及其他生态失调现象的发生和发展,推广植物病虫害的综合防治,合理使用化肥、农药及植物生长激素。
    第二十一条 国务院和治海地方各级人民政府应当加强对海洋环境的保护。向海洋排放污染物、倾到废弃物,进行海岸工程建设和海洋石油勘探开发,必须依照法律的规定,防止对海洋环境的污染损害。
    第二十二条 制定城市规划,应当确定保护和改善环境的目标和任务。
    第二十三条 城乡建设应当结合当地自然环境的特点,保护植被、水域和自然景观,加强城市园林、绿地和风景名胜区的建设。

    第四章 防治环境污染和其他公害
    第二十四条 产生环境污染和其他公害的单位,必须把环境保护工作纳入计划,建立环境保护责任制度;采取有效措施,防治在生产建设或者其他活动中产生的废气、废水、废渣、粉尘、恶臭气体、放射性物质以及噪声、振动、电磁波辐射等对环境的污染和危害。
    第二十五条 新建工业企业和现有工业企业的技术改造,应当采用资源利用率高、污染物排放量少的设备和工艺,采用经济合理的废弃物综合利用技术和污染物处理技术。
    第二十六条 建设项目中防治污染的设旋,必须与主体工程同时设计、同时施工、同时投产使用。防治污染的设施必须经原审批环境影响报告书的环境保护行政主管部门验收合格后,该建设项目方可投入生产或者使用。
    防治污染的设施不得擅自拆除或者闲置,确有必要拆除或者闲置的,必须征得所在地的环境保护行政主管部门同意。
    第二十七条 排放污染物的企业事业单位,必须依照国务院环境保护行政主管部门的规定申报登记。
    第二十八条 排放污染物超过国家或者地方规定的污染物排放标准的企业事业单位,依照国家规定缴纳超标准排污费,并负责治理。水污染防治法另有规定的,依照水污染防治法的规定执行。
    征收的超标准排污费必须用于污染的防治,不得挪作他用,具体使用办法由国务院规定。
    第二十九条 对造成环境严重污染的企业事业单位,限期治理。
    中央或者省、自治区、直辖市人民政府直接管辖的企业事业单位的限期治理,由省、自治区、直辖市人民政府决定。市、县或者市、县以下人民政府管辖的企业事业单位的限期治理,由市、县人民政府决定。被限期治理的企业事业单位必须如期完成治理任务。
    第三十条 禁止引进不符合我国环境保护规定要求的技术和设备。
    第三十一条 因发生事故或者其他突然性事件,造成或者可能造成污染事故的单位,必须立即采取措施处理,及时通报可能受到污染危害的单位和居民,并向当地环境保护行政主管部门和有关部门报告,接受调查处理。
    可能发生重大污染事故的企业事业单位,应当采取措施,加强防范。
    第三十二条 县级以上地方人民政府环境保护行政主管部门,在环境受到严重污染威胁居民生命财产安全时,必须立即向当地人民政府报告,由人民政府采取有效措施,解除或者减轻危害。
    第三十三条 生产、储存、运输、销售、使用有毒化学物品和含有放射性物质的物品,必须遵守国家有关规定,防止污染环境。
    第三十四条 任何单位不得将产生严重污染的生产设备转移给没有污染防治能力的单位使用。

    第五章 法律责任
    第三十五条 违反本法规定,有下列行为之一的,环境保护行政主管部门或者其他依照法律规定行使环境监督管理权的部门可以根据不同情节,给予警告或者处以罚款:

    (一)拒绝环境保护行政主管部门或者其他依照法律规定行使环境监督管理权的部门现场检查或者在被检查时弄虚作假的。
    (二)拒报或者谎报国务院环境保护行政主管部门规定的有关污染物排放申报事项的。
    (三)不按国家规定缴纳超标准排污费的。
    (四)引进不符合我国环境保护规定要求的技术和设备的。
    (五)将产生严重污染的生产设备转移给没有污染防治能力的单位使用的。
    第三十六条 建设项目的防治污染设施没有建成或者没有达到国家规定的要求,投入生产或者使用的,由批准该建设项目的环境影响报告书的环境保护行政主管部门责令停止生产或者使用,可以并处罚款。
    第三十七条 未经环境保护行政主管部门同意,擅自拆除或者闲置防治污染的设施,污染物排放超过规定的排放标准的,由环境保护行政主管部门责令重新安装使用,并处罚款。
    第三十八条 对违反本法规定,造成环境污染事故的企业事业单位,由环境保护行政主管部门或者其他依照法律规定行使环境监督管理权的部门根据所造成的危害后果处以罚款;情节较重的,对有关责任人员由其所在单位或者政府主管机关给予行政处分。
    第三十九条 对经限期治理逾期未完成治理任务的企业事业单位,除依照国家规定加收超标准排污费外,可以根据所造成的危害后果处以罚款,或者责令停业、关闭。
    前款规定的罚款由环境保护行政主管部门决定。责令停业、关闭,由作出限期治理决定的人民政府决定;责令中央直接管辖的企业事业单位停业、关闭,须报国务院批准。
    第四十条 当事人对行政处罚决定不服的,可以在接到处罚通知之日起十五是内,向作出处罚决定的机关的上一级机关申请复议;对复议决定不服的,可以在接到复议决定之日起十五日内,向人民法院起诉。当事人也可以在接到处罚通知之日起十五日内,直接向人民法院起诉。当事人
    逾期不申请复议、也不向人民法院起诉、又不履行处罚决定的,由作出处罚决定的机关申请人民法院强制执行。
    第四十一条 造成环境污染危害的,有责任排除危害,并对直接受到损害的单位或者个人赔偿损失。
    赔偿责任和赔偿金额的纠纷,可以根据当事人的请求,由环境保护行政主管部门或者其他依照本法律规定行使环境监督管理权的部门处理;当事人对处理决定不服的,可以向人民法院起诉。当事人也可以直接向人民法院起诉。
    完全由于不可护拒的自然灾害,并经及时采取合理措施,仍然不能避免造成环境污染损害的,免予承担责任。
    第四十二条 因环境污染损害赔偿提起诉讼的时效期间为三年,从当事人知道或者应当知道受到污染损害时起计算。
    第四十三条 违反本法规定,造成重大环境污染事故,导致公私财产重大损失或者人身伤亡的严重后果的,对直接责任人员依法追究刑事责任。
    第四十四条 违反本法规定,造成土地、森林、草原、水、矿产、渔业、野生动植物等资源的破坏的,依照有关法律的规定承担法律责任。
    第四十五条 环境保护监督管理人员滥用职权、玩忽职守、徇私舞弊的,由其所在单位或者上级主管机关给予行政处分;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。

    第六章 附 则
    第四十六条 中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的与环境保护有关的国际条约,同中华人民共和国法律有不同规定的,适用国际条约的规定,但中华人民共和国声明保留的条款除外。
    第四十七条 本法自公布之日起施行《中华人民共和国环境保护法(试行)》同时废止。

    ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION LAW OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA

    Important Notice: (注意事项)
    英文本源自中华人民共和国务院法制局编译, 中国法制出版社出版的《中华人民共和国涉外法规汇编》(1991年7月版).
    当发生歧意时, 应以法律法规颁布单位发布的中文原文为准.
    This English document is coming from the "LAWS AND REGULATIONS OF THE
    PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA GOVERNING FOREIGN-RELATED MATTERS" (1991.7)
    which is compiled by the Brueau of Legislative Affairs of the State
    Council of the People's Republic of China, and is published by the China
    Legal System Publishing House.
    In case of discrepancy, the original version in Chinese shall prevail.

    Whole Document (法规全文)
    ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION LAW OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
    (Adopted at the 11th Meeting of the Standing Committee of the
    Seventh National People's Congress on December 26, 1989, promulgated by
    Order No. 22 of the President of the People's Republic of China on
    December 26, 1989, and effective on the date of promulgation)

    Contents
    Chapter I General Provisions
    Chapter II Supervision and Management of the Environment
    Chapter III Protection and Improvement of the Environment
    Chapter IV Prevention and Control of Environmental Pollution and Other
    Public Hazards
    Chapter V Legal Liability
    Chapter VI Supplementary Provisions

    Chapter I General Provisions
    Article 1
    This Law is formulated for the purpose of protecting and improving
    people's environment and the ecological environment, preventing and
    controlling pollution and other public hazards, safeguarding human health
    and facilitating the development of socialist modernization.
    Article 2
    "Environment" as used in this Law refers to the total body of all natural
    elements and artificially transformed natural elements affecting human
    existence and development, which includes the atmosphere, water, seas,
    land, minerals, forests, grasslands, wildlife, natural and human remains,
    nature reserves, historic sites and scenic spots, and urban and rural
    areas.
    Article 3
    This Law shall apply to the territory of the People's Republic of China
    and other sea areas under the jurisdiction of the People's Republic of
    China.
    Article 4
    The plans for environmental protection formulated by the state must be
    incorporated into the national economic and social development plans; the
    state shall adopt economic and technological policies and measures
    favourable for environmental protection so as to coordinate the work of
    environmental protection with economic construction and social
    development.
    Article 5
    The state shall encourage the development of education in the science of
    environmental protection, strengthen the study and development of the
    science and technology of environmental protection, raise the scientific
    and technological level of environmental protection and popularize
    scientific knowledge of environmental protection.
    Article 6
    All units and individuals shall have the obligation to protect the
    environment and shall have the right to report on or file charges against
    units or individuals that cause pollution or damage to the environment.
    Article 7
    The competent department of environmental protection administration under
    the State Council shall conduct unified supervision and management of the
    environmental protection work throughout the country.
    The competent departments of environmental protection administration of
    the local people's governments at or above the county level shall conduct
    unified supervision and management of the environmental protection work
    within areas under their jurisdiction. The state administrative
    department of marine affairs, the harbour superintendency administration,
    the fisheries administration and fishing harbour superintendency agencies,
    the environmental protection department of the armed forces and the
    administrative departments of public security, transportation, railways
    and civil aviation at various levels shall, in accordance with the
    provisions of relevant laws, conduct supervision and management of the
    prevention and control of environmental pollution. The competent
    administrative departments of land, minerals, forestry, agriculture and
    water conservancy of the people's governments at or above the county level
    shall, in accordance with the provisions of relevant laws, conduct
    supervision and management of the protection of natural resources.
    Article 8
    The people's government shall give awards to units and individuals that
    have made outstanding achievements in protecting and improving the
    environment.

    Chapter II Supervision and Management of the Environment
    Article 9
    The competent department of environmental protection administration under
    the State Council shall establish the national standards for environment
    quality. The people's governments of provinces, autonomous regions and
    municipalities directly under the Central Government may establish their
    local standards for environment quality for items not specified in the
    national standards for environment quality and shall report them to the
    competent department of environmental protection administration under the
    State Council for the record.
    Article 10
    The competent department of environmental protection administration under
    the State Council shall, in accordance with the national standards for
    environment quality and the country's economic and technological
    conditions, establish the national standards for the discharge of
    pollutants.
    The people's governments of provinces, autonomous regions and
    municipalities directly under the Central Government may establish their
    local standards for the discharge of pollutants for items not specified in
    the national standards; with regard to items already specified in the
    national standards, they may set local standards which are more stringent
    than the national standards and report the same to the competent
    department of environmental protection administration under the State
    Council for the record. Units that discharge pollutants in areas where
    the local standards for the discharge of pollutants have been established
    shall observe such local standards.
    Article 11
    The competent department of environmental protection administration under
    the State Council shall establish a monitoring system, formulate the
    monitoring norm and, in conjunction with relevant departments, organize a
    monitoring network and strengthen the management of environmental
    monitoring.
    The competent departments of environmental protection administration under
    the State Council and governments of provinces, autonomous regions and
    municipalities directly under the Central Government shall regularly issue
    bulletins on environmental situations.
    Article 12
    The competent departments of environmental protection administration of
    the people's governments at or above the county level shall, in
    conjunction with relevant departments, make an investigation and an
    assessment of the environmental situation within areas under their
    jurisdiction, draw up plans for environmental protection which shall,
    subject to overall balancing by the department of planning, be submitted
    to the people's government at the same level for approval before
    implementation.
    Article 13
    Units constructing projects that cause pollution to the environment must
    observe the state provisions concerning environmental protection for such
    construction projects. The environmental impact statement on a
    construction project must assess the pollution the projects is likely to
    produce and its impact on the environment and stipulate the preventive and
    curative measures; the statement shall, after initial examination by the
    authorities in charge of the construction project, be submitted by
    specified procedure to the competent department of environmental
    protection administration for approval. The department of planning shall
    not ratify the design plan descriptions of the construction project until
    after the environmental impact statement on the construction project is
    approved.
    Article 14
    The competent departments of environmental protection administration of
    the people's governments at or above the county level or other departments
    invested by law with power to conduct environmental supervision and
    management shall be empowered to make on-site inspections of units under
    their jurisdiction that discharge pollutants. The units being inspected
    shall truthfully report the situation to them and provide them with the
    necessary information. The inspecting authorities shall keep confidential
    the technological know-how and business secrets of the units inspected.
    Article 15
    Work for the prevention and control of the environmental pollution and
    damage that involve various administrative areas shall be conducted by the
    relevant local people's governments through negotiation, or by decision of
    the people's government at a higher level through mediation.

    Chapter III Protection and Improvement of the Environment
    Article 16
    The local people's governments at various levels shall be responsible for
    the environment quality of areas under their jurisdiction and take
    measures to improve the environment quality.
    Article 17
    The people's governments at various levels shall take measures to protect
    regions representing various types of natural ecological systems, regions
    with a natural distribution of rare and endangered wild animals and
    plants, regions where major sources of water are conserved, geological
    structures of major scientific and cultural value, famous regions where
    karst caves and fossil deposits are distributed, traces of glaciers,
    volcanos and hot springs, traces of human history, and ancient and
    precious trees. Damage to the above shall be strictly forbidden.
    Article 18
    Within the scenic spots or historic sites, nature reserves and other zones
    that need special protection, as designated by the State Council, the
    relevant competent department under the State Council, and the people's
    governments of provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly
    under the Central Government, no industrial production installations that
    cause environmental pollution shall be built; other installations to be
    built in these areas must not exceed the prescribed standards for the
    discharge of pollutants. If the installations that have been built
    discharge more pollutants than are specified by the prescribed discharge
    standards, such pollution shall be eliminated or controlled within a
    prescribed period of time.
    Article 19
    Measures must be taken to protect the ecological environment while natural
    resources are being developed or utilized.
    Article 20
    The people's governments at various levels shall provide better protection
    for the agricultural environment by preventing and controlling soil
    pollution, the desertification and alkalization of land, the
    impoverishment of soil, the deterioration of land into marshes, earth
    subsidence, the damage of vegetation, soil erosion, the drying up of
    sources of water, the extinction of species and the occurrence and
    development of other ecological imbalances, by extending the scale of a
    comprehensive prevention and control of plant diseases and insect pests,
    and by promoting a rational application of chemical fertilizers,
    pesticides and plant growth hormone.
    Article 21
    The State Council and the people's governments at various levels in
    coastal areas shall provide better protection for the marine environment.
    The discharge of pollutants and the dumping of wastes into the seas, the
    construction of coastal projects, and the exploration and exploitation of
    offshore oil must be conducted in compliance with legal provisions so as
    to guard against the pollution and damage of the marine environment.
    Article 22
    The targets and tasks for protecting and improving the environment shall
    be defined in urban planning.
    Article 23
    In urban and rural construction, vegetation, waters and the natural
    landscape shall be protected and attention paid to the construction of
    gardens, green land and historic sites and scenic spots in the cities in
    the light of the special features of the local natural environment.

    Chapter IV Prevention and Control of Environmental Pollution and Other Public Hazards
    Article 24
    Units that cause environmental pollution and other public hazards shall
    incorporate the work of environmental protection into their plans and
    establish a responsibility system for environmental protection, and must
    adopt effective measures to prevent and control the pollution and harms
    caused to the environment by waste gas, waste water, waste residues, dust,
    malodorous gases, radioactive substances, noise, vibration and
    electromagnetic radiation generated in the course of production,
    construction or other activities.
    Article 25
    For the technological transformation of newly-built industrial enterprises
    and existing industrial enterprises, facilities and processes that effect
    a high rate of the utilization of resources and a low rate of the
    discharge of pollutants shall be used, along with economical and rational
    technology for the comprehensive utilization of waste materials and the
    treatment of pollutants.
    Article 26
    Installations for the prevention and control of pollution at a
    construction project must be designed, built and commissioned together
    with the principal part of the project. No permission shall be given for a
    construction project to be commissioned or used, until its installations
    for the prevention and control of pollution are examined and considered up
    to the standard by the competent department of environmental protection
    administration that examined and approved the environmental impact
    statement. Installations for the prevention and control of pollution
    shall not be dismantled or left idle without authorization. If it is
    really necessary to dismantle such installations or leave them idle, prior
    approval shall be obtained from the competent department of environmental
    protection administration in the locality.
    Article 27
    Enterprises and institutions discharging pollutants must report to and
    register with the relevant authorities in accordance with the provisions
    of the competent department of environmental protection administration
    under the State Council.
    Article 28
    Enterprises and institutions discharging pollutants in excess of the
    prescribed national or local discharge standards shall pay a fee for
    excessive discharge according to state provisions and shall assume
    responsibility for eliminating and controlling the pollution. The
    provisions of the Law on Prevention and Control of Water Pollution shall
    be complied with where they are applicable.
    The income derived from the fee levied for the excessive discharge of
    pollutants must be used for the prevention and control of pollution and
    shall not be appropriated for other purposes. The specific measures
    thereof shall be prescribed by the State Council.
    Article 29
    If an enterprise or institution has caused severe environmental pollution,
    it shall be required to eliminate and control the pollution within a
    certain period of time. For enterprises and institutions directly under
    the jurisdiction of the Central Government or the people's government of a
    province, an autonomous region, or a municipality directly under the
    Central Government, the decision on a deadline for the elimination or
    control of pollution shall be made by the people's government of the
    province, autonomous region and the municipality directly under the
    Central Government. For enterprises and institutions under the
    jurisdiction of a people's government at or below the city or county
    level, such decision shall be made by the people's government of the city
    or county. Such enterprises and institutions shall accomplish the
    elimination or control of pollution within the specified period of time.
    Article 30
    A ban shall be imposed on the importation of any technology or facility
    that fails to meet the requirements specified in the regulations of our
    country concerning environmental protection.
    Article 31
    Any unit that, as a result of an accident or any other exigency, has
    caused or threatens to cause an accident of pollution, must promptly take
    measures to prevent and control the pollution hazards, make the situation
    known to such units and inhabitants as are likely to be endangered by such
    hazards, report the case to the competent department of environmental
    protection administration of the locality and the departments concerned
    and accept their investigation and decision.
    Enterprises and institutions that are likely to cause severe pollution
    accidents shall adopt measures for effective prevention.
    Article 32
    If the safety of the lives and property of inhabitants is endangered by
    severe environmental pollution, the competent department of environmental
    protection administration of the local people's government at or above the
    county level must promptly report to the local people's government. The
    people's government concerned shall take effective measures to remove or
    alleviate the hazard.
    Article 33
    The production, storage, transportation, sale and use of toxic chemicals
    and materials containing radioactive substances must comply with the
    relevant state provisions so as to prevent environmental pollution.
    Article 34
    No unit shall be permitted to transfer a production facility that causes
    severe pollution for use by a unit that is unable to prevent and control
    pollution.

    Chapter V Legal Liability
    Article 35
    Any violator of this Law shall, according to the circumstances of the
    case, be warned or fined by the competent department of environmental
    protection administration or another department invested by law with power
    to conduct environmental supervision and management for any of the
    following acts:
    (1) refusing an on-site inspection by the competent department of
    environmental protection administration or another department invested by
    law with power to conduct environmental supervision and management, or
    resorting to trickery and fraud while undergoing inspection;
    (2) refusing to report or submitting a false report on items for which
    declaration is required by the competent department of environmental
    protection administration under the State Council;
    (3) failing to pay, as provided for by the state, the fee for the
    excessive discharge of pollutants;
    (4) importing technology or a facility that fails to meet the requirements
    specified in the state provisions concerning environmental protection; or
    (5) transferring a production facility that causes severe pollution for
    use by a unit that is unable to prevent and control pollution.
    Article 36
    When a construction project is commissioned or put to use in circumstances
    where facilities for the prevention and control of pollution either have
    not been completed or fail to meet the requirements specified in state
    provisions, the competent department of environmental protection
    administration responsible for the approval of the environmental impact
    statement on the construction project shall order the suspension of its
    operations or use and may concurrently impose a fine.
    Article 37
    A unit which dismantles or leaves idle the installations for the
    prevention and control of pollution without prior approval by the
    competent department of environmental protection administration, thereby
    discharging pollutants in excess of the prescribed discharge standards,
    shall be ordered by the competent department of environmental protection
    administration to set up the installations or put them to use again, and
    shall concurrently be fined.
    Article 38
    An enterprise or institution which violates this Law, thereby causing an
    environmental pollution accident, shall be fined by the competent
    department of environmental protection administration or another
    department invested by law with power to conduct environmental supervision
    and management in accordance with the consequent damage; in a serious
    case, the persons responsible shall be subject to administrative sanction
    by the unit to which they belong or by the competent department of the
    government.
    Article 39
    An enterprise or institution that has failed to eliminate or control
    pollution by the deadline as required shall, as provided for by the state,
    pay a fee for excessive discharge; in addition, a fine may be imposed on
    it on the basis of the damage incurred, or the enterprise or institution
    may be ordered to suspend its operations or close down. The fine as
    specified in the preceding paragraph shall be decided by the competent
    department of environmental protection administration. An order for the
    suspension of operations or shut-down of an enterprise or institution
    shall be issued by the people's government that set the deadline for the
    elimination or control of pollution. An order for the suspension of
    operations or shut-down of an enterprise or institution directly under the
    jurisdiction of the Central Government shall be submitted to and approved
    by the State Council.
    Article 40
    A party refusing to accept the decision on administrative sanction may,
    within 15 days of receiving the notification on such a decision, apply for
    reconsideration to the department next higher to the authorities that
    imposed the sanction; if the party refuses to accept the decision of
    reconsideration, it may, within 15 days of receiving the reconsideration
    decision, bring a suit before a people's court. A party may also bring a
    suit directly before a people's court within 15 days of receiving the
    notification on the sanction. If, upon the expiration of this period, the
    party has not applied for reconsideration or has neither brought a suit
    before a people's court nor complied with the sanction, the authorities
    that imposed the sanction may apply to the people's court for compulsory
    enforcement.
    Article 41
    A unit that has caused an environmental pollution hazard shall have the
    obligation to eliminate it and make compensation to the unit or individual
    that suffered direct losses. A dispute over the liability to make
    compensation or the amount of compensation may, at the request of the
    parties, be settled by the competent department of environmental
    protection administration or another department invested by law with power
    to conduct environmental supervision and management. If a party refuses to
    accept the decision on the settlement, it may bring a suit before a
    people's court. The party may also directly bring a suit before the
    people's court.
    If environmental pollution losses result solely from irresistible natural
    disasters which cannot be averted even after the prompt adoption of
    reasonable measures, the party concerned shall be exempted from liability.
    Article 42
    The limitation period for prosecution with respect to compensation for
    environmental pollution losses shall be three years, counted from the time

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