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  • 工业产品质量责任条例(附英文)

    1. 【颁布时间】1986-4-5
    2. 【标题】工业产品质量责任条例(附英文)
    3. 【发文号】
    4. 【失效时间】2022-5-1
    5. 【颁布单位】国务院
    6. 【法规来源】http://www.people.com.cn/item/flfgk/gwyfg/1986/112502198602.html
      注:本法规2022-5-1已经被id745844法规废止


    7. 【法规全文】

     

    工业产品质量责任条例(附英文)

    工业产品质量责任条例(附英文)

    国务院


    工业产品质量责任条例(附英文)


    工业产品质量责任条例(附英文)

    1986年4月5日,国务院

    第一章 总 则
    第一条 为了明确工业产品(以下简称产品)质量责任,维护用户和消费者(以下简称用户)的合法权益,保证有计划的商品经济健康发展,促进社会主义现代化建设,特制定本条例。
    第二条 产品质量是指国家的有关法规、质量标准以及合同规定的对产品适用、安全和其它特性的要求。产品质量责任是指因产品质量不符合上述要求,给用户造成损失后应承担的责任。
    第三条 国家标准化部门负责制定全国统一的国家标准。国家标准应不低于国际标准水平。国家标准可以分级分等。企业主管部门要规定生产企业达到国家标准最高等级的期限。国家物价部门按标准等级,实行按质论价。
    第四条 产品的生产、储运、经销企业必须按照本条例的规定,承担产品质量责任。各部门、各地区,特别是企业主管机关必须对产品质量进行管理,监督有关企业坚持质量第一的方针,保证产品质量,承担质量责任;管理和监督不力的也应承坦连带责任。
    第五条 质量监督机构、工商行政管理机关必须对产品质量进行监督,维护用户的利益。
    第六条 产品的合格证、说明书、优质标志、认证标志等都必须与产品的实际质量水平相一致。产品广告中关于产品质量的说明,必须符合产品的实际质量。
    第七条 所有生产、经销企业必须严格执行下列规定:(1)不合格的产品不准出厂和销售;(2)不合格的原材料、零部件不准投料、组装;(3)国家已明令淘汰的产品不准生产和销售;(4)没有产品质量标准、未经质量检验机构检验的产品不准生产和销售;(5)不准弄虚作假、以次充好、伪造商标、假冒名牌。所有生产、经销企业都不得用搭配手段推销产品。

    第二章 产品生产企业的质量责任
    第八条 产品的生产企业必须保证产品质量符合国家的有关法规、质量标准以及合同规定的要求。产品的生产企业必须建立严密、协调、有效的质量保证体系,要明确规定产品的质量责任。企业必须保证质量检验机构能独立行使监督、检验的职权;严禁对质量检验人员进行打击报复。
    第九条 产品出厂,必须符合下列要求:(一)达到本条例第二条规定的质量要求,有检验机构和检验人员签证的产品检验合格证;(二)根据不同特点,有产品名称、规格、型号、成份、含量、重量、用法、生产批号、出厂日期、生产厂家、厂址、产品技术标准编号等文字说明,限时使用的产品应注明失效时间。优质产品必须有标志;(三)实行生产许可证制度的产品,要有许可证编号、批准日期和有效期限;(四)机器、设备、装置、仪表以及耐用消费品,除符合本条(一)、(二)、(三)项要求外,还应有详细的产品使用说明书。内容包括:产品的技术经济参数、使用寿命、使用范围、保证期限、安装方法、维修方法和保存条件、技术保养检修期以及其它有关产品设计参数的有效数据。电器产品,应附有线路图和原理图;(五)包装必须符合国家有关规定和标准。剧毒、危险、易碎、怕压、需防潮、不装倒置的产品,在内外包装上必须有显著的指示标志和储运注意事项。产品包装上必须注明实际重量(净重和毛重);(六)使用商标和分级分等的产品,在产品或包装上应有商标和分级分等标记;(七)符合国家安全、卫生、环境保护和计量等法规的要求。
    第十条 达不到国家的有关标准规定等级、仍有使用价值的“处理品”,经企业主管机关批准后,方可降价销售,在产品和包装上必须标出显著的“处理品”字样。违反国家安全、卫生、环境保护、计量等法规要求的产品,必须及时销毁或作必要的技术处理,不得以“处理品”流入市场。不得用“处理品”生产和组装用以销售的产品。
    第十一条 在产品保证期限内发现质量不符合第二条要求时,根据不同情况,由产品生产企业对用户和经销企业承坦质量责任:(一)产品的一般零部件、元器件失效,更换后即能恢复使用要求的,应负责按期修复;(二)产品的主要零部件、元器件失效,不能按期修复的,应负责更换合格品;(三)产品因设计、制造等原因造成主要功能不符合第二条要求,用户要求退货的,应负责退还货款;(四)造成经济损失的,还应负责赔偿实际经济损失;(五)由维修服务或经销企业负责产品售后技术服务时,生产企业必须按售后技术服务合同,提供足够的备品、备件和必要的技术支援。

    第三章 产品储运企业的质量责任
    第十二条 承储、承运、装卸企业必须根据国家有关规定和产品包装上标明的储运要求进行储存、运输和装卸。
    第十三条 承储、承运企业在产品入库储存或出库、产品承运或交货时,应按照国家有关规定,严格执行交接验收制度,明确质量责任。确属储存、运输、装卸原因造成产品损伤,承储、承运、装卸企业应分别承担责任,按国家有关规定,赔偿经济损失。

    第四章 产品经销企业的质量责任
    第十四条 经销企业在进货时,应对产品进行验收,明确产品的质量责任。经销企业出售的产品,必须符合本条例第七条、第九条的规定。
    第十五条 经销企业售出的产品在保证期限内发现质量不符合第二条的要求时,应由经销企业负责对用户实行包修、包换、包退、承担赔偿实际经济损失的责任。

    第五章 产品质量的监督管理
    第十六条 各质量监督机构,按照国家有关规定,单独组织或者会同工商行政管理部门、各行业主管部门、企业主管部门,对产品的生产、储运和经销等各个环节实行经常性的监督抽查,并定期公布抽查产品的质量状况。企业必须如实提供抽查样品,并在检测手段和工作条件方面提供方便。除国家已有规定外,质量监督机构抽查产品,不准向企业收费,以保证监督机构的公正性。质量监督机构所需的技术措施费用和检测费用,按实际需要由国家或地方财政拨款解决。各级经济委员会负责对产品质量监督管理工作进行领导和组织协调。
    第十七条 各级行业主管部门和企业主管部门负责本行业产品质量的管理工作,其职责是:在授权范围内,制定或参与制定有关产品质量标准以及有关规章制度,负责产品质量的监督管理,督促企业保证产品质量,完善质量保证系统;组织发放生产许可证。
    第十八条 对产品质量实行社会性监督。用户可以向产品生产、储运、经销企业提出质量查询;社团组织可以协助用户参与质量争议的调解、仲裁,支持用户向人民法院起诉。
    第十九条 用户按双方协议可以派出代表到生产企业对产品生产过程和产品质量进行现场监督。

    第六章 产品质量责任争议的处理
    第二十条 因产品质量问题发生争议时,有经济合同的,按《经济合同法》的有关规定执行;没有合同的,争议的任何一方都可提请有关的质量监督机构调解处理,也可向人民法院起诉。
    第二十一条 对产品质量的技术检验数据有争议时,当事人或调解、仲裁机构可委托法定的质量检验单位进行仲裁检验,质量检验单位应对提供的仲裁检验数据负责。
    第二十二条 除国家另有规定外,质量责任的仲裁请求和起诉,应从当事人知悉或应当知悉权益受损害之日起一年内提出。产品质量责任方愿意承担责任时,不受时效限制。

    第七章 罚 则
    第二十三条 企业产品质量达不到国家规定的标准,企业主管机关应令其限期整顿。经整顿仍无效者,企业主管机关应令其停产或转产,直至建议有关主管机关撤销生产许可证,吊销营业执照。在整顿期间,企业主管机关视不同情况,可扣发企业负责人和职工的奖金、工资。
    第二十四条 生产、经销企业违反本条例规定,有下列行为之一者,由企业主管机关对企业负责人和直接责任者给以行政处分,由工商行政管理机关没收其全部非法收入,并视其情节轻重,处以相当于非法收入的15%至20%的罚款,直至由司法机关追究法律责任。(一)生产、经销掺假产品、冒牌产品,以“处理品”冒充合格品;(二)生产、经销隐匿厂名、厂址的产品;(三)生产、经销没有产品检验合格证的产品;(四)生产、经销国家已明令淘汰的产品;(五)生产、经销国家实行生产许可证制度而到期未取得生产许可证的产品;(六)生产、经销用不合格原材料、零部件生产或组装的产品;(七)生产、经销违反国家安全、卫生、环境保护和计量等法规要求的产品;(八)经销过期失效产品。罚没收入全部上交国家财政。
    第二十五条 有质量监督抽查中发现生产和经销企业有第二十四条中列举的行为时,由质量监督机构按第二十四条规定处理。对于不符合本条例第九条第七项规定的,由质量监督机构监督就地销毁或作必要的技术处理,并令生产、经销企业在限期内追回已售出的不合格产品。违反本条例第八条的规定,对质量检验人员进行打击报复的,或质量监督、检验机构工作人员徇私舞弊的,由有关主管机关给予行政处分;情节特别严重的,依法追究刑事责任。
    第二十六条 由于产品的质量责任,造成用户人身伤亡,财产损失,触犯刑律的,由司法机关依法追究当事人的刑事责任。
    第二十七条 上述处罚,不免除产品质量责任方对用户承担的产品包修、包换、包退、赔偿实际经济损失的责任。

    第八章 附 则
    第二十八条 有关主管部门可根据本条例的规定,制定实施细则;进出口商品、军用产品及有特殊要求的产品的质量责任可由有关主管部门参照本条例的原则,另行规定。
    第二十九条 本条例适用于所有全民、集体所有制企业,个体工商业经营者以及在中国境内的中外合资、合作、外资企业。
    第三十条 本条例授权国家经济委员会负责解释。
    第三十一条 本条例自一九八六年七月一日起施行。(附英文)

    REGULATIONS ON QUALITY RESPONSIBILITY FOR INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS

    Important Notice: (注意事项)
    英文本源自中华人民共和国务院法制局编译, 中国法制出版社出版的《中华人民共和国涉外法规汇编》(1991年7月版).
    当发生歧意时, 应以法律法规颁布单位发布的中文原文为准.
    This English document is coming from the "LAWS AND REGULATIONS OF THEPEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA GOVERNING FOREIGN-RELATED MATTERS" (1991.7)which is compiled by the Brueau of Legislative Affairs of the StateCouncil of the People's Republic of China, and is published by the ChinaLegal System Publishing House.
    In case of discrepancy, the original version in Chinese shall prevail.

    Whole Document (法规全文)
    REGULATIONS ON QUALITY RESPONSIBILITY FOR INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS(Promulgated by the State Council on April 5, 1986)

    Chapter I General Provisions
    Article 1
    The present Regulations are enacted in order to define the qualityresponsibility for industrial products ("products" for short hereinafter),safeguard the legitimate rights of the customer and consumer ("customer"for short hereinafter), ensure the healthy development of commodityeconomy in a planned way, and promote socialist modernization.
    Article 2
    "Quality of product" refers to the requirement for the applications,safety and other properties of the products stipulated in related laws andregulations, quality standards and contracts."Quality responsibility for products" refers to the responsibility thatshall be born due to the product's failure to satisfy the above-mentionedrequirements, which leads to loss on the part of the customer.
    Article 3
    The national standardization department is responsible for drawing up theunified national standards. The national standards shall not be lower thanthe international standards. National standards may be classified andgraded. The competent authorities responsible for the enterprise shall fixa time limit for achieving the highest grade of the national standards.The price department of the Central Government shall fix the pricesaccording to the grades of standards and implement the principle of "priceaccording to quality".
    Article 4
    Those enterprises engaging in the production, storing, transporting andmarketing of the product must, in accordance with the stipulations of thepresent Regulations, undertake the quality responsibility for theproducts.
    The various departments, various localities, especially the competentauthorities for the manufacturer must exercise strict control over thequality of the products, supervise and see that the manufacturer concernedabides by the principle of "quality first", with a view to guaranteeingthe quality of product and undertaking quality responsibility. Thosefailing to exercise effective control and supervision shall also undertakeliability arising therefrom.
    Article 5
    Quality-supervision agencies and the industry and commerce administrationdepartments must keep supervision over the quality of product and protectthe interest of the customer.
    Article 6
    The quality certificate, manuals, "high-quality" sign and identity sign ofa product must all be in conformity with the actual quality level of theproduct. The explanation in the advertisement of the product must conformto the actual quality of the product.
    Article 7
    All the manufacturers and the marketing firms must observe strictly thefollowing rules:
    (1) unqualified product is forbidden from being dispatched from thefactory or marketed;
    (2) unqualified raw materials and parts and components are not allowed tobe put into production or be used for assembly;
    (3) it is forbidden to manufacture the products whose elimination theState has explicitly ordered;
    (4) product without the product-quality standard or without being testedby the state quality-testing organ is not allowed to be manufactured andmarketed;
    (5) it is forbidden to plot frauds, to pass of unqualified product asqualified, to forge trademarks, or to imitate the famous brand products.All the manufacturers and marketing firms are not allowed to sell theirproducts by way of coupling-sale.

    Chapter II Quality Responsibility of the Product Manufacturer
    Article 8
    The manufacturer of the product must make sure that the quality of theproduct conforms to the requirements laid down by relevant laws andregulations, quality standards and stipulations of the contract.The manufacturer of the product must set up a strict, well-coordinated andeffective quality-guarantee system, with a view to fixing the qualityresponsibility for the product in an explicit manner.The manufacturer must see to it that the quality-inspecting organ canindependently perform its functions of supervision and testing. It isstrictly forbidden to retaliate against the quality inspectors.
    Article 9
    The product shall not leave the factory unless it satisfies the followingrequirements:
    (1) achieving the quality requirements stipulated in Article 2 of thepresent Regulations, and obtaining the quality certificate of the productissued by testing organ and testing personnel;
    (2) having the written explanation of, according to specificcharacteristics, the product's name, size, model, ingredients, thepercentage of the ingredients, weight, direction for applications, lot No.of production, date of production, name of manufacturer, address of themanufacturer, and the serial number of the technical specifications of thesaid product; explicitly specifying the date of expiry in case of aproduct with time limit of efficacy. "High-quality" product must bear themark thereof;
    (3) having the serial number, date of approval and the term of validity ofthe production licence in case of a product manufactured under theproduction licence system;
    (4) machinery, equipment, devices, apparatus and durable consumer goods,apart from satisfying the requirements in Items (1), (2) and (3) of thisArticle, shall be accompanied with detailed instructions on the use of theproduct. The content thereof includes: the product's technical-economicparameters, service life, range of application, term of guarantee, methodsfor installation, methods of maintenance and conditions for storing, termof technical maintenance and repair, and other effective data concerningthe design parameters of the product. Electric products shall be attachedwith the circuit diagram and schematic diagram;
    (5) the package must conform to the related state regulations andstandards. As regards the products that are drastically poisonous,dangerous, fragile, can not be laid on by heavyload, needing protectionagainst moisture, can not be turned upside down, there must be, on boththe external and interior packing, obvious indication marks and noticesfor storing andtransportation. On the package of the product, there mustbe noted explicitly the actual weights(net and gross);
    (6) on the product or the package thereof on which the trademark andquality classification and grading system is applied, there shall be signsfor the said trademark, classification and grading;
    (7) conforming to the requirements of the state laws and regulations
    concerning safety, hygiene, protection of environment and measuring.Article 10
    The "substandard" goods that fail to achieve the requirements of therelated state standards, but still have some use value, cannot be marketedat reduced price until having obtained the approval from the competentauthorities of the manufacturer; and on the package there must be clearlymarked with the words of "substandard goods". Products that fail to meetthe requirements of the state laws and regulations concerning safety,hygiene and environmental protection and measuring must be destroyed orundergo necessary technical treatment in good time. They are not allowedto enter the market in the name of "substandard goods"."Substandard goods" are not allowed to be used to manufacture or assemblemarket-oriented products.
    Article 11
    Within the guarantee period of the product, in case of the quality foundout of line with the requirements stipulated in Article 2, themanufacturer shall, according to the following different circumstances,undertake the quality liability to the customer and marketing firm:
    (1) the common part or component loses efficacy and therefore, after beingreplaced, the performance can immediately be restored; in this case, themanufacturer shall be responsible for replacing with qualified parts orcomponents and for restoring the normal performance;
    (2) in case that the main part or competent of the product has lost theefficacy and cannot be repaired within the set period, the manufacturershall be responsible for replacing with qualified products;
    (3) in case the major function fails to satisfy the requirements ofArticle 2 due to such causes as designing and manufacture, if the customerrequires to return the goods, the manufacturer shall refund;
    (4) in case of economic loss caused by the quality faults, themanufacturer shall also compensate for the actual loss;
    (5) if maintenance and repair service or marketing firm responsible forthe aftersale technical service, so required and manufacturer must,according to the contract of aftersale service, supply sufficient standbyproducts, spare parts and necessary technical support.

    Chapter III Quality Responsibility of Enterprises for Storing or Transporting the Product
    Article 12
    The enterprises which undertake to store, transport, load or unload theproducts must conduct the work of the storing, transportation, loading andunloading in compliance with the relevant state stipulations and thestoring-transporting requirements indicated on the package of the product.
    Article 13
    In the course of the product entering the warehouse for storing or leavingthe warehouse, undertaking to transport the product or handing over theproduct, the enterprise that stores or transports the product shallobserve the pertinent state stipulations and the storing-trans-system ofhanding-over and checking before acceptance, so as to define the qualityresponsibility. In case it has been testified that the damage of theproduct is due to the cause of storage, transport or loading andunloading, the enterprises which store, transport or load and unload theproduct shall bear their respective liabilities and, according to relatedgovernment regulations, compensate for the economic loss.

    Chapter IV Quality Responsibility of the Marketing Firm of the Product
    Article 14
    When laying in a stock of merchandise, the marketing firm shall, beforeacceptance, test the product, so that the quality responsibility can beclearly defined. The products sold by the marketing firm must conform tothe requirements stipulated in Articles 7 and 9 of the presentRegulations.
    Article 15
    In case the product sold by the marketing firm is found not up to theconditions stipulated in Article 2 within the period of guarantee, themarketing firm shall be responsible for guaranteed repairing, replacement,taking back the product and refunding, and undertaking the responsibilityof compensating for the actual economic loss.

    Chapter V Supervision and Control over the Quality of Product
    Article 16
    The various quality-supervising agencies shall, in accordance with therelevant regulations of the state, organize independently, or togetherwith the industry and commerce administrative authorities, the responsibledepartments of the various trades, and the responsible departments of thevarious manufacturers, regular supervisional sample-checking on thevarious links such as manufacture, storing, transportation, and marketing,and regularly publicize the result of the testing of the samples.Enterprises must honestly furnish the samples for checking and providefacilities with respect to the testing means and working conditions.Unless otherwise stated in state regulations, it is not allowed for thequality-supervising agencies to collect fees from the enterprises forsample-checking on the product, so as to guarantee the impartiality of thesupervising agencies. The expenses needed for the technical means andmeasures and for the test by the quality-supervising agencies shall becovered by the state or local financial allocations according to theactual needs.
    The economic commission at various levels are responsible for leadership,organization and coordination of the supervision and control over productquality.
    Article 17
    Responsible departments of the trades and responsible departments for theenterprises at various levels are responsible for the control over thequality of products in the respective trades within their authorization,which covers: formulating or taking part in the formulation of the qualitystandards for the products in their respective areas of responsibility andthe pertinent rules and regulations, being responsible for supervision andcontrol over the quality of products, urging the enterprises to ensure thequality of product, perfecting the quality guaranteeing system, andorganizing the issuance of production licences.
    Article 18
    Exercise social supervision over the quality of product. The customer canmake inquiries about the quality of the product at the manufacturer, theenterprises for storing and transporting, and the marketing firms; and thesocial associations and organizations can help the customers participatein the mediation, arbitration over quality disputes, and support thecustomers to file lawsuits with the people's court.
    Article 19
    The customer can, according to the mutual agreement between the customerand manufacturer, send his representative to the manufacturer to conducton-the-spot-supervision over the process of the production and the qualityof the product.

    Chapter VI Settlement of Disputes over Quality Responsibility for the Product
    Article 20
    Any dispute arising from the quality of product shall, provided there isan economic contract, observe the relevant stipulations in the EconomicContract Law. In the absence of such contracts, either party to thedispute can refer the dispute to a relevant quality-supervising agency formediation or settlement, or take the case to the people's court.
    Article 21
    In case of any dispute over the data of technical testing of the qualityof product, the party concerned or the mediating or arbitrating agenciescan entrust legally designated quality-testing unit for arbitral testing;and the said quality testing unit shall be responsible for the data of thearbitral testing.
    Article 22
    Unless otherwise stipulated by the government, the request for arbitrationor prosecution over quality responsibility shall be raised within one yearfrom the date the party concerned is aware of or should be aware of hisinterest and rights being damaged. Where the party bearing the qualityresponsibility for the product is willing to bear the responsibility, itis not limited by the term of validity.

    Chapter VII Penalties
    Article 23
    Where the product of an enterprise fails to reach the state-stipulatedstandards, the competent authoritative department of the said enterpriseshall order the enterprise to rectify production within a fixed period.Where the said rectification within the fixed period turns out to be of noeffect, the competent authoritative department of the said enterpriseshall order it to stop production or switch over to a new line ofproducts, or even suggest that the relevant authorities revoke theproduction licence and the business licence. In the period ofrectification, the competent authoritative department responsible for thesaid enterprise may, according to different circumstances, deduct thebonus and wages of the executive members of the enterprise and of thestaff and workers.
    Article 24
    Where the manufacturer or marketing firm has committed one of thefollowing acts in violation of the stipulations of the presentRegulations, the authoritative department responsible for the enterpriseor firm shall mete out disciplinary punishment to the responsible personsof the enterprise and to the persons bearing direct responsibility; andthe industry and commerce administrative organ shall confiscate all theillegal income, and impose on it a fine equivalent to 15% to 20% of theillegal income according to the degree of seriousness of the case; or eventhe legal liabilities shall be fixed by the judicial organs through dueinvestigation.
    1. manufacture or market adulterated product or imitated product, or passoff "substandard" product as qualified;
    2. manufacture or market products without indicating the name and addressof the manufacturer;
    3. manufacture or market products without quality certificate;
    4. manufacture or market products of which the State has issued explicitorder for their elimination;
    5. manufacture or market the products on which the State adopts the systemof production licence, but fails to renew the said production licenceafter its expiry;
    6. manufacture or market products manufactured or assembled withunqualified raw materials, parts or components;
    7. manufacture or market products in violation of the requirementsstipulated by state laws and regulations concerning safety, hygiene,environmental protection and measuring;
    8. market products which have passed the expiry date.The incomes collected from fines shall be handed to the state treasury.
    Article 25
    In the course of sample-check on quality supervision, in case it is foundthat the manufacturer or marketing firm has committed the act(s) listed inArticle 24, the quality-supervising agency shall treat the case accordingto the stipulation in Article 24. As regards the product not in conformityto the provision of Item (7) of Article 9 of the present Regulations, theproduct shall be destroyed on the spot by the quality-supervising agencyor be given the necessary technical treatment; and the manufacturer andthe marketing firm shall be ordered to recover within the given time allthe substandard products that have already been sold.In case of violation of the stipulations in Article 8 of the presentRegulations, or retaliation against quality-testing personnel, or theworking personnel in quality-supervising and quality-testing agencies actwrongly out of personal consideration, the responsible authoritativedepartment shall mete out disciplinary punishment. As regards those ofextraordinary seriousness, criminal liabilities shall be investigated andfixed according to law.
    Article 26
    Where the poor quality of the product has resulted in the injury or deathof the customer, and in his loss of property, hence violating the criminalcode, the judicial organs shall investigate and fix the legal liability ofthe party concerned.
    Article 27
    The above-mentioned penalty does not acquit the party bearing the qualityresponsibility of its responsibility for the guaranteed repair,replacement, recovering the product with the money already paid, and thecompensation for the actual economic loss to the customer(s).

    Chapter VIII Supplementary Provisions
    Article 28
    The relevant responsible authorities may, in line with the provisions ofthe present Regulations, work out the implementing details. The qualityresponsibility regulations for import & export products, for goods withmilitary application as well as goods for special requirements, therelevant authorities may, with reference to the principles of the presentRegulations, enact separate specific regulations.
    Article 29
    The present Regulations apply to all enterprises with ownership by thewhole people, enterprises with ownership by the collective, individualindustrial and commercial operators as well as the Chinese-foreign equityjoint ventures, contractual joint ventures, and foreign-capitalenterprises.
    Article 30
    The State Economic Commission is authorized to interpret the presentRegulations.
    Article 31
    The present Regulations shall go into force on July 1st, 1986.


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